Vladimir II Monomakh of Smolensk1

#25101, b. 1053, d. 19 May 1125
FatherVsewolod I of Perejaslaw b. c 1030, d. 13 Apr 1093
MotherMaria Theodora Monamacha of Byzantium b. c 1032, d. c Nov 1067
Relationship27th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Vladimir II Monomakh of Smolensk was born in 1053.2 He married Gytha of Wessex, daughter of Harold II Godwinsson of England and Ealdgyth of England, circa 1070.2 Vladimir died on 19 May 1125.2 He was interred at Kiev, Ukraine.2

Citations

  1. Prince of Smolensk & Tchernigov, Grand Duke of Kiev & Peresjarlaw.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S500] Rupert Alen and Anna Marie Dahlquist, Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, page 166.

Gytha of Wessex1

#25102, d. 1 May 1107
FatherHarold II Godwinsson of England b. c 1020, d. 14 Oct 1066
MotherEaldgyth of England
Relationship27th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Gytha of Wessex married Vladimir II Monomakh of Smolensk, son of Vsewolod I of Perejaslaw and Maria Theodora Monamacha of Byzantium, circa 1070.2 Gytha died on 1 May 1107.3

Narrative

     Gytha was also known as Gyda.

     Gytha was a bastard.

Citations

  1. Princess of England.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  4. [S500] Rupert Alen and Anna Marie Dahlquist, Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, page 166.

Erik of Sweden1

#25103, b. circa 935, d. 993
FatherBjorn of Uppsala b. 868, d. c 956
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Erik of Sweden was born circa 935.2 He married Gunhilda of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland and Dubravka of Bohemia.3 He married Sigrid ?, daughter of Skoglar-Toste.2 Erik died in 993 at Uppsala, Sweden.2,4

Child of Erik and Sigrid:

Citations

  1. (Segersall-the Victorious), King of Sweden & Denmark.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S500] Rupert Alen and Anna Marie Dahlquist, Royal Families of Medieval Scandinavia, page 105.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 458.

Sigrid ?

#25104, b. circa 950
FatherSkoglar-Toste
Relationship30th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Sigrid ? was born circa 950.1 She married second Svene Gobelbart.1 She married first Erik of Sweden, son of Bjorn of Uppsala.1

Child of Sigrid and Erik:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Skoglar-Toste

#25105
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Skoglar-Toste and an unknown spouse:

Svene Gobelbart1

#25106, d. 3 February 1014

Major Life Events

     Svene Gobelbart married Sigrid ?, daughter of Skoglar-Toste.2 Svene died on 3 February 1014.2

Narrative

     Svene was also known as Turskagg.

Citations

  1. King of Denmark.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Bjorn of Uppsala1

#25107, b. 868, d. circa 956
FatherEric Edmundsson b. c 849, d. 906
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Bjorn of Uppsala was born in 868.2 Bjorn died circa 956.2

Children of Bjorn and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Bjorn was also known as Bijorn.

Citations

  1. (the Old, a Haugi), King of Uppsala.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Eric Edmundsson1

#25108, b. circa 849, d. 906
FatherEdmund Eriksson b. c 832
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Eric Edmundsson was born circa 849.2 Eric died in 906.2

Child of Eric and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Eric also was Lord of part of Norway for a time which he lost to Harold "the fair-haired", King of the Swedes and Goths.

Citations

  1. Lord of Finland, Eastland, & Kurland.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Edmund Eriksson1

#25109, b. circa 832
FatherErik Bjornsson b. c 814
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Edmund Eriksson was born circa 832 at Sweden.2

Child of Edmund and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Swedish King at Birka.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Erik Bjornsson1

#25110, b. circa 814
FatherBjorn Ragnarsson
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Erik Bjornsson was born circa 814.2

Child of Erik and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Swedish King at Uppsala.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Bjorn Ragnarsson1

#25111
FatherRagnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson d. 865
MotherAslaug Sigurdsdottir b. c 755
Relationship35th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Bjorn and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Bjorn led the great Viking raid around Spain into the Mediterranean in 859.

Citations

  1. Swedish King at Uppsala.

Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson1

#25112, d. 865
FatherSigurd Ring Randversson b. c 710, d. c 812
MotherAlfhild Gandolfsdottir
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson married first Thora Herraudsdottir, daughter of Herraud of Gothland.2 He married second Aslaug Sigurdsdottir, daughter of Sigurd of Denmark.3 Ragnar died in 865 at Northumbria, England. He is said to have perished in a Northumbrian snakepit.4

Child of Ragnar and Thora:

Citations

  1. (Hairy-Britches), Danish King at Lethra.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 738.
  5. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 459.

Aslaug Sigurdsdottir

#25113, b. circa 755
FatherSigurd of Denmark
Relationship33rd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Aslaug Sigurdsdottir was born circa 755.1 She married Ragnar Lodbrok Sigurdsson, son of Sigurd Ring Randversson and Alfhild Gandolfsdottir.1

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 459.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Sigurd of Denmark1

#25114
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Sigurd and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. (Fofnersbane.)

Sigurd Ring Randversson

#25115, b. circa 710, d. circa 812
FatherRandver Radbardsson d. 770
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Sigurd Ring Randversson was probably born at Denmark circa 710.1 He married Alfhild Gandolfsdottir, daughter of Gandolf of Sweden.1 Sigurd died circa 812.2

Child of Sigurd and Alfhild:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 738.

Alfhild Gandolfsdottir

#25116
FatherGandolf of Sweden1 b. c 700
Relationship33rd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Alfhild Gandolfsdottir married Sigurd Ring Randversson, son of Randver Radbardsson.2

Child of Alfhild and Sigurd:

Citations

  1. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Randver Radbardsson

#25117, d. 770
FatherRadbard of Garderidge b. 638
MotherAud Ivarsdotter b. c 633
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Randver Radbardsson was probably born at Denmark.1 Randver was slain in the epic sea battle of Bravik in 770.1

Child of Randver and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Radbard of Garderidge1

#25118, b. 638
Relationship35th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Radbard of Garderidge was probably born at Garderidge, Russia, in 638.2 He married Aud Ivarsdotter, daughter of Ivar Halfdansson, circa 659.2,3

Child of Radbard and Aud:

Citations

  1. King of Garderidge (Russia.)
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Aud Ivarsdotter1

#25119, b. circa 633
FatherIvar Halfdansson b. c 612
Relationship35th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Aud Ivarsdotter was born circa 633 at Denmark.2 She married first Rurick of Lethra, son of Ivar Vidfadmi.3 She married second Radbard of Garderidge circa 659.3,2

Child of Aud and Rurick:

Child of Aud and Radbard:

Citations

  1. (the Deep Minded.)
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Ivar Halfdansson1

#25120, b. circa 612
FatherHalfdan Haroldsson b. c 590
MotherMaolda ?
Relationship36th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Ivar Halfdansson was born circa 612 at Denmark.2

Child of Ivar and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. (Wide Fathom from Skane), King of Roeskilde, Lethra, and Sweden.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Halfdan Haroldsson1

#25121, b. circa 590
FatherHarold I Valdarsson b. c 568
Relationship37th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Halfdan Haroldsson was born circa 590 at Jutland, Denmark.2 He married Maolda ?.2

Child of Halfdan and Maolda:

Citations

  1. King of Roeskilde.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Maolda ?

#25122
Relationship37th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Maolda ? married Halfdan Haroldsson, son of Harold I Valdarsson.1

Child of Maolda and Halfdan:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Harold I Valdarsson1

#25123, b. circa 568
FatherValdar Hroarsson b. c 547
MotherHildis of the Vandals
Relationship38th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Harold I Valdarsson was born circa 568 at Jutland, Denmark.2

Child of Harold and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. King of Roeskilde.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Hildis of the Vandals1

#25124
FatherHilderic of the Vandals2 d. c 525
MotherAmfleda2 b. c 496
Relationship39th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Hildis of the Vandals married Valdar Hroarsson, son of Hroar Halfdansson and Ogne of Northumbria.3

Child of Hildis and Valdar:

Narrative

     Some authorities give, as her father, Hilderic, King of Vandals, thus opening up the possibility of a royal Vandals line going back to Genseric, a Vandal who conquered much of Africa about 425-455.

Citations

  1. Princess of the Vandals.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

William I de Gometz-la-Ferte1

#25125, b. circa 975
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#1)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#2)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     William I de Gometz-la-Ferte was probably born at Normandy, France, circa 975.2

Children of William and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Bures.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Milon I de Monteleherico1

#25126
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Major Life Events

     Milon I de Monteleherico married Unknown de Montlhery, daughter of Thibaud de Montlhery.2

Child of Milon and Unknown:

Citations

  1. Seigneur de la Ferte-sur-Ourcy.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Unknown de Montlhery1

#25127
FatherThibaud de Montlhery b. c 970, d. c 1031
Relationship29th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Major Life Events

     Unknown de Montlhery married Milon I de Monteleherico.2

Child of Unknown and Milon:

Citations

  1. Dame de Montlhery & Chevreuse.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Thibaud de Montlhery1

#25128, b. circa 970, d. circa 1031
FatherAnsaud II of Paris
MotherReitrude ?
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Major Life Events

     Thibaud de Montlhery was born circa 970.2 Thibaud died circa 1031.2

Child of Thibaud and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Thibaud built the castle of Montlhery.

Citations

  1. Seigneur of Montlhery & Chevreuse, Grand Forester of King Robert II of France.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Ansaud II of Paris1

#25129
FatherAnsaud I d'Auxerre
MotherRaingarde de Dijon d. b 954
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Ansaud II of Paris married Reitrude ?.2

Child of Ansaud and Reitrude:

Citations

  1. (le Riche), counselor of King Robert II.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Reitrude ?

#25130
Relationship31st great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Reitrude ? married Ansaud II of Paris, son of Ansaud I d'Auxerre and Raingarde de Dijon.1

Child of Reitrude and Ansaud:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Ansaud I d'Auxerre1

#25131
FatherLisiar de Sceaux
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Ansaud and Raingarde:

Citations

  1. (le Riche), Vicomte d'Auxerre.

Raingarde de Dijon

#25132, d. before 954
FatherRaoul de Dijon
MotherRaingarde ? d. 958
Relationship32nd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Raingarde died before 954.1

Child of Raingarde and Ansaud:

Child of Raingarde and Hugh:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Raoul de Dijon1

#25133
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Raoul de Dijon married Raingarde ?.2

Child of Raoul and Raingarde:

Citations

  1. Comte de Dijon.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Raingarde ?

#25134, d. 958
Relationship33rd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Raingarde ? married Raoul de Dijon.1 Raingarde died in 958.1

Child of Raingarde and Raoul:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Lisiar de Sceaux1

#25135
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Lisiar died a monk at St. Benoit-sur-Loire.2

Child of Lisiar and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Sceaux in the Gatinais.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Anselme Candavene of St. Pol1

#25136, d. 1174
FatherHugh III of St. Pol d. 1141
MotherMarguerite de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis
Relationship25th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#1)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#2)

Major Life Events

     Anselme Candavene of St. Pol married Eustachie de Champagne, daughter of Eustace IV of Bologne and Constance of France.2 Anselme died in 1174.2

Children of Anselme and Eustachie:

Citations

  1. Count of St. Pol.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S2380] Stirnet Genealogy, online http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/genfam.htm, SZvar01.

Eustachie de Champagne

#25137
FatherEustace IV of Bologne b. c 1129, d. 10 Aug 1153
MotherConstance of France b. c 1128, d. 16 Aug 1176
Relationship25th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#1)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#2)

Major Life Events

     She married first Geoffrey de Mandeville.1 She married second Anselme Candavene of St. Pol, son of Hugh III of St. Pol and Marguerite de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.1

Children of Eustachie and Anselme:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S2380] Stirnet Genealogy, online http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/genfam.htm, SZvar01.

Geoffrey de Mandeville

#25138, d. 21 October 1166

Major Life Events

     Geoffrey de Mandeville married Eustachie de Champagne, daughter of Eustace IV of Bologne and Constance of France.1 Geoffrey died on 21 October 1166.1

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Gui of Boulogne1

#25139
FatherErnicule of Boulogne d. 972
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Child of Gui and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Count of Bolulogne.

Ernicule of Boulogne1

#25140, d. 972
FatherWilliam I de Ponthieu
MotherMaud ?
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Major Life Events

     Ernicule died in 972.2

Child of Ernicule and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Count ob Boulogne.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

William I de Ponthieu

#25141
FatherRoger of Ponthieu b. c 890, d. c 957
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     William I de Ponthieu married Maud ?.1

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Maud ?

#25142
Relationship31st great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Maud ? married William I de Ponthieu, son of Roger of Ponthieu.1

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Bertha d'Aumale1

#25144, b. circa 1005
FatherGuenfroi d'Aumale
Relationship28th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#1)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#2)

Major Life Events

     Bertha d'Aumale was probably born at Aumale, Normandy, France, circa 1005.2 She married Hugh II of Ponthieu, son of Enguerrand of Ponthieu and Adele of Holland, circa 1024 at Normandy, France.3

Children of Bertha and Hugh:

Citations

  1. Heiress of Aumale.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Guenfroi d'Aumale1

#25145
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia

Child of Guenfroi and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Sire of Aumale.

Adele of Holland

#25146, b. circa 987, d. 20 November 1052
FatherArnulf I of West Friesland b. c 961, d. 18 Sep 993
MotherLuitgarde of Luxemburg d. 14 May 1005
Relationship28th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#1)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#2)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#3)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#1)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV) (#2)

Major Life Events

     Adele of Holland was born circa 987.1 She married Baldwin II of Boulogne, son of Gui of Boulogne.2 She married Enguerrand of Ponthieu, son of Hugh I de Montreuil and Gisela of France.2 Adele died on 20 November 1052.1

Children of Adele and Enguerrand:

Children of Adele and Baldwin:

Citations

  1. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Herlouin I

#25148, d. 878
FatherHeliguad I b. b 831, d. c 866
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Herlouin died in 878.1

Child of Herlouin and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Heligaud II of Montreuil1

#25149, d. circa 926
FatherHerlouin I d. 878
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Heligaud died circa 926 at Pays d'Atrois, France.

Children of Heligaud and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Count of Montreuil.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Herlouin II of Ponthieu1

#25150, d. 13 August 945
FatherHeligaud II of Montreuil d. c 926
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Herlouin II of Ponthieu married Unknown ? before 927.2 Herlouin was killed in battle on 13 August 945 at Normandy, France.2

Child of Herlouin and Unknown:

Citations

  1. Count of Ponthieu & Amines.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Unknown ?

#25151
Relationship32nd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Unknown ? married Herlouin II of Ponthieu, son of Heligaud II of Montreuil, before 927.1

Child of Unknown and Herlouin:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Roger of Ponthieu

#25152, b. circa 890, d. circa 957
FatherHerlouin II of Ponthieu d. 13 Aug 945
MotherUnknown ?
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Roger of Ponthieu was born circa 890.1 Roger died circa 957.2

Children of Roger and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Hugh of Ponthieu

#25153, d. 961
FatherRoger of Ponthieu b. c 890, d. c 957
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Hugh died in 961.1

Child of Hugh and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Heilwig von Egisheim

#25154, d. after 1118
FatherGerhard III of Egisheim d. c 1075
MotherPetronilla of Verdun
Relationship26th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Heilwig von Egisheim married Gerhard I of Vaudemont, son of Gerhard IV of Upper Lorraine and Hedwig of Namur, before 1092.1 Heilwig died after 1118.1

Child of Heilwig and Gerhard:

Narrative

     Heilwig was also known as Edith.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Petronilla of Verdun

#25155
Relationship27th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Petronilla of Verdun married Gerhard III of Egisheim, son of Gerhard II of Nordgau and Berta ?.1

Child of Petronilla and Gerhard:

Narrative

     Petronilla was also known as Richarda.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Muhammad III of Seville1

#25157, b. 1040, d. 1095
FatherMuhammad II of Seville b. 1014, d. 1082
MotherUnknown of Balearic Isles
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Muhammad III of Seville was born in 1040.2 Muhammad died in 1095 at Aghmat, Morocco.2

Child of Muhammad and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Muhammad was also known as al-Mu'tamid abu'l-Qasim.

     He conquered Murcia in 1078.

Citations

  1. King of Seville 1069-1091.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Al Mamun of Seville1

#25158

Major Life Events

     Al Mamun of Seville married Zaida of Seville, daughter of Muhammad III of Seville.2

Citations

  1. Prince of Seville.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Beatrice of Aquitaine

#25159, d. circa 1110
FatherWilliam VI (IV) of Aquitaine b. c 1024, d. 25 Sep 1086
MotherHildegard of Burgundy b. bt 1050 - 1055, d. a 1104
Relationship25th great-grandaunt of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Beatrice of Aquitaine married Alfonso VI of Castile & Leon, son of Fernando I of Castile and Sancha of Leon, in 1108.1 Beatrice died circa 1110.2

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Rotrou I of Montagne1

#25161
FatherGeoffrey II de Chateaudun d. b 1005
MotherHelvise of Carbon
Relationship26th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Rotrou I of Montagne married Adela de Domfront, daughter of Warin de Belleme, before 1041.2

Child of Rotrou and Adela:

Citations

  1. Count of Montagne, Vicomte de Chateaudun, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Adela de Domfront

#25162
FatherWarin de Belleme b. c 994
Relationship26th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Adela de Domfront married Rotrou I of Montagne, son of Geoffrey II de Chateaudun and Helvise of Carbon, before 1041.1

Child of Adela and Rotrou:

Narrative

     Adela was also known as Adelaide.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Warin de Belleme1

#25163, b. circa 994
FatherWilliam I Talvas de Belleme b. c 970, d. c 1031
MotherMathilda of Ganelon b. c 969
Relationship27th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Warin de Belleme was probably born at Domfront, Normandy, France, circa 994.2

Child of Warin and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Domfront.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

William I Talvas de Belleme1

#25164, b. circa 970, d. circa 1031
FatherWilliam de Belleme b. c 950, d. a 1026
MotherMathilde de Conde-sur-Noirau b. c 952, d. c 1024
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#1)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#2)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     William I Talvas de Belleme was probably born at Normandy, France, circa 970.2 He married Mathilda of Ganelon circa 991.3,2 William died circa 1031 at Domfront.3 He was interred at Notre-Dame-sur-l'Eau.3

Children of William and Mathilda:

Citations

  1. (Fabour), Sire d'Alencon.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Mathilda of Ganelon

#25165, b. circa 969
Relationship28th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#1)
Ancestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia (#2)
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Mathilda of Ganelon was probably born at Ganelon, France, circa 969.1 She married William I Talvas de Belleme, son of William de Belleme and Mathilde de Conde-sur-Noirau, circa 991.2,1

Children of Mathilda and William:

Narrative

     Mathilda was also known as Maud.

Citations

  1. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Geoffrey II de Chateaudun1

#25166, d. before 1005
FatherHugh I de Chateaudun d. b 989
MotherHildegarde of Blois
Relationship27th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Geoffrey II de Chateaudun married Helvise of Carbon, daughter of Fulk of Carbon.2 Geoffrey died before 1005.2

Child of Geoffrey and Helvise:

Citations

  1. Vicomte de Chanteaudun, Seigneur de Nogent-le-Rotrou.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Helvise of Carbon

#25167
FatherFulk of Carbon
Relationship27th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Helvise of Carbon married Geoffrey II de Chateaudun, son of Hugh I de Chateaudun and Hildegarde of Blois.1

Child of Helvise and Geoffrey:

Narrative

     Helvise was also known as Elizabeth.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Fulk of Carbon1

#25168
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Child of Fulk and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Count of Carbon (later called Montagne.)

Hugh I de Chateaudun1

#25169, d. before 989
FatherGeoffrey I de Chateaudun d. c 986
MotherHermengarde ? d. 14 Apr 1023
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Hugh I de Chateaudun married Hildegarde of Blois, daughter of Theobald II of Blois and Liutgarde de Vermandois.2 Hugh died before 989.2

Child of Hugh and Hildegarde:

Citations

  1. Vicomte de Chateaudun, Archbishop of Tours.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Hildegarde of Blois

#25170
FatherTheobald II of Blois b. c 910, d. 16 Jan 975
MotherLiutgarde de Vermandois b. c 914, d. 9 Feb 978
Relationship28th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Hildegarde of Blois married Hugh I de Chateaudun, son of Geoffrey I de Chateaudun and Hermengarde ?.1

Child of Hildegarde and Hugh:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Geoffrey I de Chateaudun1

#25171, d. circa 986
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Geoffrey I de Chateaudun married Hermengarde ?.2 Geoffrey died circa 986.2

Child of Geoffrey and Hermengarde:

Citations

  1. Vicomte de Chateaudun.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Hermengarde ?

#25172, d. 14 April 1023
Relationship29th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Hermengarde ? married Geoffrey I de Chateaudun.1 Hermengarde died on 14 April 1023.1

Child of Hermengarde and Geoffrey:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Brion of Ireland1

#25173
FatherEochaid Mugnedon
Relationship44th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Brion and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Brion was the half brother of Niall "of the nine hostages."

Citations

  1. King of Ireland.

Eochaid Mugnedon1

#25174
Relationship45th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Eochaid and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. King of Ireland.

Duncan of Atholl1

#25175, b. circa 949
FatherDuncan of Dule
Relationship27th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of David Kincaid, immigrant to Virginia

Major Life Events

     Duncan of Atholl was born circa 949.2,3

Child of Duncan and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Thane of Dule, Lord of the Isles & Atholl.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.

Duncan of Dule1

#25176
Relationship28th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of David Kincaid, immigrant to Virginia

Child of Duncan and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Thane of Dule, Earl of Strathclyde.

Leo VI of Byzantium1

#25177, b. 1 September 866, d. 12 May 912
FatherMichael III of Byzantium b. 840, d. 24 Sep 867
MotherEudokia Ingerina b. 840, d. 883
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
According to conflicting evidence, he married Zoe Tzautzina in 898.2

Major Life Events

     Leo VI of Byzantium was born on 1 September 866.2 He married second Zoe Tzautzina, daughter of Stylianos Tzautzina, in 886.3 He married fourth? Zoe Karvounopsina.4 Leo died on 12 May 912 at age 45.2

Child of Leo and Zoe:

Child of Leo and Zoe:

Narrative

     Wikipedia, the online encylopedia, indicates that Leo married four times. First it indicates that he was forced to married his first wife (not named) by Basil and she died in 897. As his second wife he took Zoe Zautzina (Tzantzina) in 897 and that she died in 899. Enfield-Bryant Genealogical Data indicates that this marriage took place in 886. This would overlap with the supposed death date of the first wife. Both Enfield-Bryant Genealogical Data and Stuart in Royalty for Commoners indicate that Zoe Zautzina was the mother of Anna of Byzantium who married Louis III Beronides, Emperor of the West. Wikipedia does not mention Anna. Enfield-Bryant Genealogical Data, which does not give a death date dor Zoe Zautzina, indicates that she is also the mother of Constantine VII born about 905. However, this would not be possible if she died in 899. Wikipedia goes onto to indicates that there was a third wife (unnamed) who died in 901. After that Leo took Zoe Karvounopsina "of the coal eyes" as a mistress and was allow to marry her after she gave birth to a son in 904, Constantine VII.

Citations

  1. (the Philosopher), King of Byzantium, Emperor of the East 886-912.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  4. [S1955] Widipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Zoe Tzautzina

#25178, d. December 899
FatherStylianos Tzautzina d. bt Jun 899 - Jul 899
Relationship32nd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
According to conflicting evidence, she married Leo VI of Byzantium in 898.1

Major Life Events

     Zoe Tzautzina married Leo VI of Byzantium, son of Michael III of Byzantium and Eudokia Ingerina, in 886.2 Zoe died in December 899.3,1

Child of Zoe and Leo:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S1955] Widipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Stylianos Tzautzina

#25179, d. between June 899 and July 899
FatherTzautzes of Macedonia
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Stylianos died between June 899 and July 899.1

Child of Stylianos and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Tzautzes of Macedonia1

#25180
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Tzautzes and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Strategos of Macedonia.

Michael III of Byzantium1

#25181, b. 840, d. 24 September 867
FatherTheophilos of Byzantium b. 813, d. 842
MotherTheodora Mamikonian b. c 815, d. by 24 September 867
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Michael III of Byzantium was born in 840.2 He married Eudokia Dekapolitissa.2 Michael died on 24 September 867.2

Child of Michael and Eudokia:

Narrative

     In addition to his wife, Michael had a concubine, Eudokia Ingerina, the wife of Basil I. Eudokia was the mother of Leo VI of Byzantium. The father was either Michael or Basil. The source used leans toward Michael as being the father and that is presented here.

Citations

  1. (the Drunkard), Byzantium Emperor 842-867.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Eudokia Ingerina

#25182, b. 840, d. 883
FatherInger Martinakios?
Relationship33rd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Eudokia Ingerina was born in 840.1 She married Basil I of Byzantium, son of Konstantinos and Pancalo ?.1 Eudokia died in 883.1

Children of Eudokia and Basil:

Child of Eudokia and Michael:

Narrative

     Eudokia was the mistress of Michael III, Byzantium Emperor. Either Michael, or Eudokia's husband Basil, was the father of Leo VI. Stuart in Royalty for Commoners believes the evidence leans toward Michael III.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table XLVII.--Eastern Empire. Isaurian and Basilian Dynasties.

Basil I of Byzantium1

#25183, b. 811, d. 29 August 886
FatherKonstantinos b. 785
MotherPancalo ?
Relationship35th great-granduncle of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Basil I of Byzantium was born in 811.2 He married Eudokia Ingerina, daughter of Inger Martinakios?.3 Basil died on 29 August 886.2

Children of Basil and Eudokia:

Citations

  1. (the Macedonian), Emperor of Byzantium 867-886.
  2. [S1955] Widipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  3. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.
  4. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table XLVII.--Eastern Empire. Isaurian and Basilian Dynasties.

Inger Martinakios?

#25184
Relationship34th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Inger and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     The parents of Inger are unknown but one is believed to perhaps be of Scandinavian origin and the other a sibling of Anastosios Martinakios, whose parents are unknown.

Renaud of Tonnerre1

#25185, b. circa 980, d. 16 July 1039
FatherMilo IV of Tonnerre b. c 950, d. b 998
MotherErmengarde of Bar-sur-Seine b. b 970, d. a 1035
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Renaud of Tonnerre was born circa 980.2 He married Helvise ?.2 Renaud died on 16 July 1039.2

Child of Renaud and Helvise:

Citations

  1. Count of Tonnerre, Seigneur of Avisoy & Polisz.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Helvise ?

#25186
Relationship29th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Robert Lawrence, immigrant to Virginia
Ancestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Helvise ? married Renaud of Tonnerre, son of Milo IV of Tonnerre and Ermengarde of Bar-sur-Seine.1

Child of Helvise and Renaud:

Narrative

     Helvise was the sister of Ardvin, Bishop of Noyen.

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Gui II of Tonnerre1

#25187, b. circa 920, d. by 993
FatherMilo III of Tonnerre d. 987
MotherEngeltrude of Brienne
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Gui II of Tonnerre was born circa 920.2 He married Adela ?.2 Gui died a monk by 993.2

Child of Gui and Adela:

Citations

  1. Count of Tonnerre.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Adela ?

#25188
Relationship31st great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Adela ? married Gui II of Tonnerre, son of Milo III of Tonnerre and Engeltrude of Brienne.1

Child of Adela and Gui:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Milo III of Tonnerre1

#25189, d. 987
FatherGui I of Tonnerre
MotherAdela of Salins
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Milo III of Tonnerre married Engeltrude of Brienne, daughter of Engelbert I de Brienne.2 Milo died a monk in 987.2

Child of Milo and Engeltrude:

Narrative

     Milo became a monk in 980.

Citations

  1. Count of Tonnerre.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Engeltrude of Brienne

#25190
FatherEngelbert I de Brienne d. a 968
Relationship32nd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Engeltrude of Brienne married Milo III of Tonnerre, son of Gui I of Tonnerre and Adela of Salins.1

Child of Engeltrude and Milo:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Engelbert I de Brienne1

#25191, d. after 968
FatherEudes of Cambrai
MotherOdele of Bois Ferrand
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Engelbert died after 968.2

Children of Engelbert and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Count of Brienne.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Gui I of Tonnerre1

#25192
FatherMilo II of Tonnerre
Relationship29th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Gui I of Tonnerre married Adela of Salins, daughter of Humbert I de Salins and Windelmode of Escuens.2

Children of Gui and Adela:

Citations

  1. Count of Tonnerre.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Adela of Salins

#25193
FatherHumbert I de Salins d. 958
MotherWindelmode of Escuens
Relationship29th great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence
ChartsAncestors of Anne Council, wife of Robert Lawrence (IV)

Major Life Events

     Adela of Salins married Gui I of Tonnerre, son of Milo II of Tonnerre.1

Children of Adela and Gui:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Milo II of Tonnerre1

#25194
FatherMilo I of Tonnerre
MotherAtila ?
Relationship30th great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Milo and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Milo founded St. Michael Abbey in Tonnerre.

Citations

  1. Count of Tonnerre.

Milo I of Tonnerre1

#25195
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Milo I of Tonnerre married Atila ?.2

Child of Milo and Atila:

Citations

  1. Count; Cadet of the Milonides, counts of Langues.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Atila ?

#25196
Relationship31st great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Atila ? married Milo I of Tonnerre.1

Child of Atila and Milo:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Bovin de Maers1

#25197
FatherLanderic II de Maers
Relationship31st great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Bovin and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Bovin was also known as Bodo.

     Bovin build the castle at Monceaux.

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Maers & de Monceau-la-Comte.

Landeric II de Maers1

#25198
FatherLanderic I de Maers
MotherHildergard ?
Relationship32nd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Child of Landeric and an unknown spouse:

Narrative

     Landeric was also known as Laundry.

     Landeric was one of the chief knights of Richard "le Justiciar," Duke of Burgundy.

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Maers.

Landeric I de Maers1

#25199
Relationship33rd great-grandfather of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Landeric I de Maers married Hildergard ? before 868.2

Child of Landeric and Hildergard:

Narrative

     Landeric was also known as Laundry.

Citations

  1. Seigneur de Maers.
  2. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.

Hildergard ?

#25200
Relationship33rd great-grandmother of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Hildergard ? married Landeric I de Maers before 868.1

Child of Hildergard and Landeric:

Citations

  1. [S424] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners.