Rachel Clabaugh1

#58201, b. 24 November 1795, d. 13 November 1836

Major Life Events

     Rachel Clabaugh was born on 24 November 1795 at Virginia.1 She married John Henton, son of Benjamin Henton and Sarah Hopkins, on 28 May 1816 at Licking Co., Ohio.1 Rachel died on 13 November 1836 at Fairfield Co., Ohio, at age 40.1

Citations

  1. [S1949] Rachel Keller-McGuire, "Henton-Clabaugh Family Group Sheet."

Asbiorn1

#58239
FatherUlf1 d. 1026
MotherAstrid of Denmark1
Relationship1st cousin 30 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table II, The Anglo-Danish Kings, and House of Godwine.

Biörn1

#58240, d. 1049
FatherUlf1 d. 1026
MotherAstrid of Denmark1
Relationship1st cousin 30 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Biörn died in 1049.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table II, The Anglo-Danish Kings, and House of Godwine.

Anne de Mowbray1,2

#58241, b. 10 December 1472, d. 1481
FatherJohn Mowbray2 b. c 1444, d. c 1476
MotherElizabeth Talbot d. bt 6 Nov 1506 - 10 May 1507
Relationship3rd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Anne de Mowbray was born on 10 December 1472.3 Anne died childless in 1481.3

Narrative

     Anne was betrothed to Richard son of Edward IV, one of the Princes in the Tower.2

Citations

  1. 8th Countess of Norfolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.
  3. [S1955] Widipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, Elizabeth de Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk.

Henry VIII Tudor of England1

#58242, b. 28 June 1491, d. 28 January 1547
FatherHenry VII Tudor of England b. 28 Jan 1457, d. 21 Apr 1509
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet b. 11 Feb 1465/66, d. 11 Feb 1502/3
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
Henry VIII

Major Life Events

     Henry VIII Tudor of England was born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace at Kent, England.2 He married first Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand V (II) of Spain and Isabella of Castile & Leon, on 11 June 1509 at Greenwich Palace.3,2 He married second Anne Boleyn on 25 January 1533 at York Place (later named Whitehall Palace), London, England.2,3 He married third Jane Seymour on 30 May 1536 at Whitehall Palace, London, England.2 He married fourth Anne of Cleves on 6 January 1540 at Greenwich Palace.2 He married fifth Catherine Howard on 28 July 1540 at Oatlands Palace, Surrey, England.2,3 He married sixth Catherine Parr, daughter of Thomas Parr and Maud Green, on 12 July 1543 at Hampton Court Palace.2,3 Henry died on 28 January 1547 at Whitehall Palace, London, England, at age 55.2 He was interred at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.2

Children of Henry and Catherine:

Child of Henry and an unknown spouse:

Child of Henry and Anne:

Child of Henry and Jane:

Narrative

     Henry VIII is probably the best known king of England. He was not born to be king. He was the the third child and second son of Henry VII. His older brother, Arthur, was heir to the throne and Henry was being groomed for the church. However, in 1502 Arthur died of consumption and Henry, only ten, became the heir apparent. He was a happy child who delighted in all manner of sports and entertainment. Not only did he mastered French and Latin, and became an excellent rider and athlete, he was a fine dancer and musician. The music of Greensleeves has long been attributed to him. Henry was the first to inherit a comparatively united kingdom. His father had established good relationships with the leading countries of Europe, and with no foreign wars for a few years, the country's finances were strong.

     Henry was two month's from his eighteenth birthday when his father died. He obeyed his father's dying wish and married Catherine, the widow of his older brother Arthur. The wedding took place six weeks after the death of his father and two weeks later there was a double coronation in Westminster Abbey with much feasting and merrymaking.

     Henry left the day to day affairs of government to his ministers which included William Warham, archbishop of Cantebury, Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (later 2nd duke of Norfolk), who was the Lord Treasurer, Bishop Richard Foxe, and after 1514, to Thomas Wolsey. He executed Edmund Dudley and Sir Richard Empson who had been two key ministers under his father and who had become hated as the architects of a strict tax regime. They were executed on grounds of "constructive treason" as they had sought to arm their men as Henry VII lay dying.

     Henry supported his father-in-law, Ferdinand of Aragon, against the Moors in 1511, and joined Pope Julius II, along with Venice and Spain, in the Holy League against France. This increased friction between England and Scotland (France's old ally), which resulted in border skirmishes and sea raids. James IV of Scotland, who was Henry's brother-in-law, insisted that if Henry remained part of the Holy League the only outcome would be war between England and Scotland. Undisturbed, in June 1513 Henry led an invasion force to Calais. James IV took advantage to invade England but it had been anticipated by Henry who dispatched Thomas Howard to counter the invasion. In the battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513, James IV and the flower of the Scottish nobility fell. Since James V, the heir, was only one year old Henry's sister Margaret became the Scottish regent. She did not have the support of the Scottish aristocracy, but for a period the battle with Scotland was won. Henry also was victorious in France leading successful sieges against Thérouanne and Tournai while his forces defeated the French in the battle of Spurs, at Guinegate on 16 August 1513. Thomas Wolsey negotiated peace with France, one of the terms being the marriage of Henry's sister Mary to Louis XII of France in 1514. The marriage was short lived as Louis died a few months later. Mary then angered Henry by running off with his close friend, Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and marrying in secret in February 1515. They were eventually pardoned and would subsequently become the grandparents of the ill-fated Lady Jane Grey.

     When the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, died in January 1519, Henry stood as a candidate to succeed him, having been encouraged by Maximilian himself. However, the electors selected from the controlling Hapsburg family. When Pope Leo X died in December 1521, Henry strove to have an English pope, nominating Thomas Wolsey but without success. He was frustrated at not being able to have greater influence in Europe affairs. This probably affect his dealings with the new French king, François. In June 1520 Wolsey arranged a summit meeting at Guisnes, near Calais, which became known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold because of the extravagance of the display, each party trying to outshine the other. Another peace treaty was negotiated though it was short-lived.

     This was the time of change in Europe among which was the reforming zeal of the German scholar and preacher, Martin Luther, who began a series of attacks on the Papacy and the Catholic Church, including his book On the Babylonish Captivity of the Church in 1520. Henry remained a straunch supporter of the Pope and along with Thomas More and John Fisher wrote Defence of the Seven Sacraments which became a best seller throughout Europe. In recognition of Henry's support the Pope conferred on Henry in 1521 the title of Fidei Defensor, or Defender of the Faith, a title which has been used by all subsequent English monarchs, regardless of their faith. Within a few years it would seem an inappropriate title for Henry.

     Henry became concerned about the lack of a male heir to the throne. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, had borne him six children who all died in infancy except for a daughter, Mary. His eldest son, born in 1511, died after only seven weeks. Their last born child died within hours of its birth in November 1518. By 1526, when Catherine turned forty it was clear that Henry would not have a son. It was frustrating to Henry as his mistress, Elizabeth Blount, who was only seventeen, had borne him a son who became Henry FitzRoy, duke of Richmond. Although illegitimate Henry began to regard him as heir to the throne if he was unable to produce a legitimate heir. By 1527 Henry had become infatuated with Anne Boleyn who refused to become his mistress and played for higher stakes. Wolsey entered into negotiations with the pope to formally annul the Henry's marriage with Cathering. The new pope, Clement VII, who was traditonal in his outlook and a vehement opponent of Lutheranism, at first looked like he might accommodate Henry, but he succumbed to the power of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who was the nephew of Catherine. He did not reject Henry's request outright, but procrastinated in every way possible, setting up a commission to review the issue. This dragged on for six years duing which time Clement was seen by more and more countries as a weak pope. The whole of Scandanavia broke with Rome and introduced Luthernism, beginning in 1527. Henry's advisor Thomas Cromwell, advised the same. Wolsey's inability to resolve the matter saw his fall from power. He was arrested for treason in 1530, but died soon afterwards. Thomas Cromwell now moved matters and under his guidance Henry became the Head of a separate Church of England with the authority to appoint his own archbishops and bishops. Thomas Crammer, his newly appointed archbishop of Canterbury, pronounced on 23 May 1533 that Henry's marriage with Catherine was void. Henry had already secretly married Anne Boleyn in January 1533 when she was one month pregnant. In July 1533 the Pope refused to accept the pronouncement, declared the divorce and remarriage void and prepared to excommunicate Henry. The excommunication was suspended but was reaffirmed by Clement's successor, Pope Paul III, who was however unable to gain the international support for the formalization of the sentence. Henry took pains to demonstrate that he was only against the Pope and not against the Church and that he was "Head of the Church" in his dominions, or like the pope, God's representative. Changes were limited and Henry emphasised this with his publication of the Act of the Six Articles in 1539 which reaffirmed the doctrines inherited from the Church of Rome. However there were those that could not support Henry in his role as Head of the Church such as Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher, who were executed in 1535.

     Henry appointed a commission to report on the state of the monasteries. Cromwell had long believed that they were too powerful and were likely to lead any resistance to change. Following the report Parliament legislated in 1536 for the suppression of all small monasteries on grounds that they were uneconomic and on the strength of this dissolved all monasteries in 1539. After putting down a rebellion known as the Pilgramage of Grace under the command of Robert Aske by first appearing conciliatory and later having Aske and over two hundreds of his rebels executed, there was little resistance to the closing of the monasteries. Although the Crown benefited considerablely from the closures as most of the profits passed to Henry, the ultimate beneficiaries were the local landed gentry who acquired most of the land and remaining properties. It was the greatest shift in land ownership since the Norman invasion.

     Anne's first born did not turn out to be a male but a female, Elizabeth. This was followed by two stillborn children and a miscarriage. Henry lost all interest in Anne and looked for ways to dissolved the marriage. He even maintained that she had been seduced by witchcraft. As a sign of this Catholics later ascribed a shrivelled sixth finger to her. He readilly believed charges of her infidelity and adultery and Anne was arrested, tried and found guilty of treason and executed on 19 May 1536. Eleven days after the execution of Anne Henry married Jane Seymour, one of Anne's ladies-in-waiting with whom he had become infactuated. Jane gave birth to a son, the future Edward VI, but weaken by the birth she died twelve days later. Because she had given him a son and heir, Jane remained the favorite of Henry's wifes and after his death he was buried beside her in St. George's Chapel, Windsor.

     Henry looked toward Europe for his next wife. Because of the papal bull isolating him, Henry was fearful that the French, the Hapsburgs, or both would invade England and disposed him. As a consequence, Henry sought a political marriage with Germany and, through the advice of Thomas Cromwell, settled on Anne, the sister of the duke of Cleves in Germany. Although Henry had admired her portrait, we was horrified when he first met Anne in January 1540, but by then the marriage arrangements had proceeded too far and he feared the backlash if he withdrew. They were wed on 6 January and the marriage was never consumated. They both agreed to a divorce which went through seven months later. Henry was generous to Anne because of her compliance and the two remained good friends.

     Henry's next marriage, which was almost on the rebound, was to Catherine Howard, a beautiful teenage and a cousin of Anne Boleyn's. They were married within three weeks of his divorce from Anne of Cleves. Katherine soon tired of her husband who was thirty years her senior and was becoming grossly fat and aging fast. She turned to her former lovers, was betrayed, charged with treason and executed on 13 February 1542. Henry entered into his final marriage the following year with an older woman, already twice widowed, Cathering Parr. By all accounts Henry was now after a companion rather than a lover, and in her he found a woman with whom he could converse on a wide range of subjects and who served as an excellent stepmother to his three surviving children, Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward, who were reconciled for the first time since 1543.

     During these tempestous marriage Henry did not ignore the international scene or the state of Britian. He regarded the British Isles as his own empire and had moved towards consolidating it in 1536 with what has since been called the Act of Union, which officially incorporated Wales as part of England, rather than a separate province. He was unable to do the same for Ireland although his father had made the Irish parliament subject to the English. A rebellion led by the Fitzgeralds in Ireland in 1534 had been summarily dealt with and 1542 Henry declared himself king rather than lord of Ireland.

     Henry kept a constant eye on the intrigues between France and Scotland. Relationships with Scotland soured and Henry regarded it an affront when James V failed to keep a meeting at York in September 1541 and future meetings were postponed due to interference of the French king. Henry grew tired of the Scots and the last connection between them ended with is sister Margaret died in 1541. The following year Henry prepared to go to war with Scotland and although no formal declaration was made there were a series of skirmishes with the upper hand going to the Scots. However, a Scottish force of some ten thousand was soundly defeated by three thousand English at Solway Moss in November 1542. Henry now pursued a marriage alliance between his son Edward and Jame's infant daughter Mary and, under the terms of the peace treaty concluded in July 1543, Mary was to marry Edward in her tenth year. This treaty was never ratified by the Scots. Hostilities continued between England and Scotland thoughout the 1540s.

     Henry died on 28 January 1547, age only 55, a victim of his gross conduct. At times he ruled like a despot yet he could wield power without it destroying him and it is true that no other English king could have undertaken such reforms and succeeded. It was through Henry, the first king to be referred to has His Majestry, that the modern English state was created.4 The marriage of Henry VIII Tudor of England and Anne of Cleves was annulled on 9 July 1540.2

Citations

  1. King of England 1509-1547, King of Ireland 1542-1547, Duke of York (from 1494), Duke of Cornwall (from 1502), Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester (from 1504.)
  2. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  3. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 630-636.
  5. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 635.

Thomas Howard1,2

#58244, b. 1473, d. 1554
FatherThomas Howard2 b. 1443, d. 1524
MotherElizabeth Tylney
Relationship3rd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Thomas Howard was born in 1473.3 He married first Anne Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville (Wydville).2 He married second Elizabeth of Buckingham.2 Thomas died in 1554.2

Citations

  1. Duke of Norfolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.
  3. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Minger/Vorenberg (Elizabeth Howard, ID:I10884).

Elizabeth of Buckingham1

#58245

Major Life Events

     Elizabeth of Buckingham married Thomas Howard, son of Thomas Howard and Elizabeth Tylney.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.

Catherine Howard1,2

#58267, d. 13 February 1542
Catherine Howard

Major Life Events

     Catherine Howard married Henry VIII Tudor of England, son of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 28 July 1540 at Oatlands Palace, Surrey, England.3,4 She was executed on 13 February 1542. She died without issue.

Narrative

     Catherine Howard was the fifth wife of Henry VIII. His marriage to her was almost on the rebound from his marriage to Anne of Cleves. Catherine was a beautiful teenager and a cousin of Anne Boleyn's. Catherine and Henry were married within three weeks of the divorce and Henry delighted in his young bride who seemed to put the spring back in his step even though by this time he was becoming grossly fat and ageing fast. Evidently Catherine soon tired of her husband, thirty years her senior, and turned to her former lovers. She was soon betrayed, charged with treason and executed on 13 February 1542.5

Citations

  1. Queen of England.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  4. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  5. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 634.

Anne Boleyn1,2

#58274, b. circa 1507, d. 19 May 1536
Anne Boleyn

Major Life Events

     Anne Boleyn was born circa 1507 at Blickling Hall at Norfolk, England.3 She married Henry VIII Tudor of England, son of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 25 January 1533 at York Place (later named Whitehall Palace), London, England.4,5 She was beheaded on 19 May 1536.3,5,4

Child of Anne and Henry:

Narrative

     By 1527 Henry VIII had become infatuated with Anne Boleyn, whose elder sister, Mary, had been Henry's mistress for some years. Anne refused to be his mistress and played for higher stakes, namely marriage to Henry. The attempt by Henry to have his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled and the refusal of the Pope to grant that annulment led to the split between Henry VIII and the Papacy and the formation of the Church of England with Henry as it's head. Henry secretedly married Anne Boleyn in January 1533 when she was one month pregnant before the newly appointed archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cramer, announced on May 23, 1533, that Henry's marriage to Catherine was void. Henry's delight in Anne's pregnancy soon faded when she gave birth to a girl, Elizabeth. This was followed by two stillborn children. A fourth child miscarried following a fall Henry had from a horse in January 1536 which left him unconscious and the shock brought on Anne's labour. By now Henry lost all interest in Anne look for ways to get out of his marriage. Anne was accused of infidelity and adultery, was arrested, tried and found guilty of treason. She was beheaded on 19 May 1536. Just two days before Archbishop Crammer declared Anne's marriage to Henry null and void, probably on rather tenuous grounds that Henry had formerly had a relationship with her sister Mary.6

Citations

  1. Queen of England.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.
  3. [S1954] Genealogy of Albert and Patricia Myers, online http://www.aemyers.net/genealogy/, Anne Boleyn.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  5. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  6. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 632-634.

William Courtenay1,2

#58292, d. 1511

Major Life Events

     William Courtenay married Catherine Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville (Wydville).2 William died in 1511.2

Child of William and Catherine:

Citations

  1. Earl of Devon.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Henry Courtenay1,2

#58294, d. 1539
FatherWilliam Courtenay2 d. 1511
MotherCatherine Plantagenet2 b. c 14 Aug 1479, d. 15 Nov 1527
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Henry Courtenay was beheaded in 1539.2

Citations

  1. Marquis of Exeter.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

John Wells1,2

#58296

Major Life Events

     John Wells married Cicely Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville (Wydville).2

Citations

  1. Viscount Wells.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Thomas Kyme1

#58297

Major Life Events

     Thomas Kyme married Cicely Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville (Wydville).1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

John de la Pole1,2

#58299, d. 1491

Major Life Events

     John de la Pole married Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Richard Plantagenet and Cicilia Neville.2 John died in 1491.2

Children of John and Elizabeth:

Citations

  1. Duke of Suffolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

John de la Pole1,2

#58300, d. 1487
FatherJohn de la Pole2 d. 1491
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet2 b. 24 Apr 1444, d. c 1503
Relationship2nd cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     John de la Pole was killed at Stoke in 1487.2

Citations

  1. Earl of Lincoln.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.