Edmund de la Pole1,2

#58301, d. 1513
FatherJohn de la Pole2 d. 1491
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet2 b. 24 Apr 1444, d. c 1503
Relationship2nd cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Edmund de la Pole was beheaded in 1513. He died without male issue.2

Citations

  1. Duke of Suffolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Richard de la Pole1

#58302, d. 1525
FatherJohn de la Pole1 d. 1491
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet1 b. 24 Apr 1444, d. c 1503
Relationship2nd cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Richard de la Pole was killed at Pavia in 1525.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Edward Plantagenet1,2

#58303, d. 1499
FatherGeorge Plantagenet2 b. 21 Oct 1449, d. 18 Feb 1477/78
MotherIsabel Neville2 b. 5 Sep 1451, d. 22 Dec 1476
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Edward Plantagenet was beheaded in 1499. He died without issue.2

Citations

  1. Earl of Warwick.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Margaret Plantagenet1,2

#58304, d. 1541
FatherGeorge Plantagenet2 b. 21 Oct 1449, d. 18 Feb 1477/78
MotherIsabel Neville2 b. 5 Sep 1451, d. 22 Dec 1476
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Margaret Plantagenet married Robert Pole.2 She was beheaded in 1541.2

Citations

  1. Countess of Salisbury.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Robert Pole1

#58305

Major Life Events

     Robert Pole married Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of George Plantagenet and Isabel Neville.1

Narrative

     Robert was also known as [Sir] Robert Pole.

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Thomas St. Leger1

#58312

Major Life Events

     Thomas St. Leger married Anne Plantagenet, daughter of Richard Plantagenet and Cicilia Neville.1

Child of Thomas and Anne:

Narrative

     Thomas was also known as [Sir] Thomas St. Leger.

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Anne St. Leger1

#58313
FatherThomas St. Leger1
MotherAnne Plantagenet1 b. 10 Aug 1439, d. c 12 Jan 1475/76
Relationship2nd cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Anne St. Leger married George Manners.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

George Manners1,2

#58314

Major Life Events

     George Manners married Anne St. Leger, daughter of Thomas St. Leger and Anne Plantagenet.2

Narrative

     The descendants of George and Anne were Earls and Dukes of Rutland.

Citations

  1. Lord Roos.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Cicely Bourchier1

#58315
FatherWilliam Bourchier1 d. c 1472
MotherAnne Wydeville1 b. c 1438, d. 30 Jul 1489
Relationship1st cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Cicely Bourchier married John Devereux.1

Children of Cicely and John:

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

John Devereux1,2

#58316, d. 1501

Major Life Events

     John died in 1501.2 He married Cicely Bourchier, daughter of William Bourchier and Anne Wydeville.2

Children of John and Cicely:

Narrative

     John was also known as [Sir] John Devereux.

Citations

  1. Lord Ferrers.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Walter Devereux1,2

#58317, d. 1558
FatherJohn Devereux2 d. 1501
MotherCicely Bourchier2
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Walter died in 1558.2

Citations

  1. Viscount Hereford.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Edward Devereux1,2

#58321
FatherJohn Devereux2 d. 1501
MotherCicely Bourchier2
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Narrative

     His descendants were Viscounts of Hereford.

Citations

  1. Viscount of Hereford.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table V, England, The White Rose.

Thomas Grey1,2

#58322, d. 1530
FatherThomas Grey2 b. b 1455, d. 30 Aug 1501
MotherAnne Holland2 b. c 1455, d. a 4 Jan 1472/73
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Thomas died in 1530.2

Child of Thomas and an unknown spouse:

Citations

  1. Marquis of Dorset.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VI, England, The Red Rose.

Henry Grey1,2

#58323, d. 1554
FatherThomas Grey2 d. 1530
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Henry Grey married Frances Brandon, daughter of Charles Brandon and Mary Tudor of England.2 He was beheaded in 1554.2

Citations

  1. Duke of Suffolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VI, England, The Red Rose.

Frances Brandon1

#58324
FatherCharles Brandon
MotherMary Tudor of England b. 18 Mar 1495/96, d. 26 Jun 1533
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Frances Brandon married Henry Grey, son of Thomas Grey.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VI, England, The Red Rose.

Jacqueline of Hainault1

#58326

Major Life Events

     Jacqueline of Hainault married Humphrey Plantagenet, son of Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VI, England, The Red Rose.

William Hastings1,2

#58327

Major Life Events

     William Hastings married Margaret Neville, daughter of Richard Neville and Alice de Montagu.2

Citations

  1. Lord Hastings.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VII, The Nevills and Their Connections.

Edward Stanley1,2

#58328, d. 1574
FatherThomas Stanley [III]2 b. c 1483, d. 23 May 1521
MotherAnn Hastings2 d. b 17 Nov 1550
Relationship1st cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Edward Stanley married Dorothy of Norfolk, daughter of Thomas Howard and Elizabeth Tylney.2 Edward died in 1574.2

Child of Edward and Dorothy:

Citations

  1. Earl of Derby.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VII, The Nevills and Their Connections.

Dorothy of Norfolk1

#58329
FatherThomas Howard b. 1443, d. 1524
MotherElizabeth Tylney
Relationship3rd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Dorothy of Norfolk married Edward Stanley, son of Thomas Stanley [III] and Ann Hastings.1

Child of Dorothy and Edward:

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VII, The Nevills and Their Connections.

Thomas Howard1,2

#58330, b. 1443, d. 1524
FatherJohn Howard2 b. c 1420, d. 22 Aug 1485
MotherCatherine de Molines2 b. c 1424, d. 1452
Relationship2nd cousin 15 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Thomas Howard was born in 1443.3 He married first Elizabeth Tylney.3 He married second Agnes Tilney.3 Thomas died in 1524.2

Children of Thomas and Elizabeth:

Child of Thomas and Agnes:

Narrative

     As the Earl of Surrey, Howard fought for King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, following which he was imprisoned for several years before having his titles and estates restored. He continued to serve the Tudor dynasty and was Lieutenant General of the North and was largely responsible for the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. In 1514 he was restored to the dukedom of Norfolk which had been forfeit since 1485.3

Citations

  1. Earl of Surrey, Duke of Norfolk, Victor of Flodden.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table IV, Descendants of Younger Sons of Edward I.
  3. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Minger/Vorenberg (Elizabeth Howard, ID:I10884).

Henry Stanley1,2

#58331, d. 1592
FatherEdward Stanley2 d. 1574
MotherDorothy of Norfolk2
Relationship2nd cousin 12 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Henry Stanley married Margaret Clifford, daughter of Henry Clifford and Eleanor Brandon.3 Henry died in 1592.3

Citations

  1. Earl of Derby.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VII, The Nevills and Their Connections.
  3. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.

Catherine Parr1,2

#58332, b. 1512, d. 5 September 1548
FatherThomas Parr b. c 1483, d. 11 Nov 1517
MotherMaud Green b. 1493, d. 20 May 1529
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
Catherine Parr

Major Life Events

     Catherine Parr was born in 1512 at Kendal Castle at Westmorland, England.3 She married first Edward Borough.4 She married second John Neville, son of Richard Neville and Ann Stafford.2 She married third Henry VIII Tudor of England, son of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 12 July 1543 at Hampton Court Palace.5,6 She married fourth Thomas Seymour on 4 April 1547.7 Catherine died without issue on 5 September 1548 at Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.3 She was interred on 8 September 1548 at Sudeley Castle at Gloucestershire, England.3

Narrative

     The sixth and last wife of Henry VIII, Catherine had been widowed twice before marrying Henry. Her tactfulness enable her to exert a beneficial influence on the King during the last years of his reign. She developed close friendships with the three children Henry had by previous marriages and devoted herself to their education. A Humanist, she was friendly with Protestant reformers. Timely access to the King saved her from conservatives, especially Stephen Gardier, who were bent on her distruction in 1546. After Henry's death she married a former suitor, Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, who was admiral of England from 1547 to 1549, but she died shortly after giving birth to a daughter. A learned and deeply religious woman, she wrote A Lamentacion of Complaynt of a Sinner in the last year of her life.4

Citations

  1. Queen of England.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VII, The Nevills and Their Connections.
  3. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Lacey (Catherine Parr, ID: 617958436).
  4. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  5. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  6. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  7. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Lacey (Thomas Seymour, ID: 617957287).

Arthur Tudor of England1

#58333, d. 1502
FatherHenry VII Tudor of England1 b. 28 Jan 1457, d. 21 Apr 1509
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet1 b. 11 Feb 1465/66, d. 11 Feb 1502/3
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Arthur Tudor of England married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand V (II) of Spain and Isabella of Castile & Leon. Arthur died without issue in 1502.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.

Margaret Tudor of England1,2

#58334, b. 28 November 1489, d. 18 October 1541
FatherHenry VII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jan 1457, d. 21 Apr 1509
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet2 b. 11 Feb 1465/66, d. 11 Feb 1502/3
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Margaret Tudor of England was born on 28 November 1489 at Westminster, Middlesex, England.3 She married first James IV Stewart, son of James III Stewart and Margaret Oldenburg, on 8 August 1503 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.2,3 She married second Archibald Douglas on 6 August 1514 at Kinnoull, Perthshire, Scotland.3 She was divorced from Archibald on 11 March 1527/28.3 She married third Henry Stewart before 2 April 1528.4,3 Margaret died of palsy on 18 October 1541 at Methven Castle, Perth, Perthshire, Scotland, at age 51.3 She was interred at St. John's Monastery at Perth, Perthshire, Scotland.3

Children of Margaret and James:

Child of Margaret and Archibald:

Child of Margaret and Henry:

Narrative

     Margaret Tudor of England was christened on 30 November 1489 at St. Margaret, Westminster, Middlesex, England.

Citations

  1. Queen of Scotland.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S3860] FamilySearch Community Trees, online http://histfam.familysearch.org/, Margaret Tudor.
  4. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table XI.--Scotland. The House of Stewart.

James IV Stewart1,2,3

#58335, b. 17 March 1472/73, d. 9 September 1513
FatherJames III Stewart b. 10 Jul 1451, d. 11 Jun 1488
MotherMargaret Oldenburg b. 23 Jun 1456, d. 14 Jul 1486
Relationship3rd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     James IV Stewart was born on 17 March 1472/73.4 He married Margaret Tudor of England, daughter of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 8 August 1503 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.2,4 He was interred in 1513 at Sheen Abbey at West Sheen, Mortlake, Surrey, England.3 James died at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513 at Kirknewton, Northumberland, England, at age 40.4

Child of James and an unknown spouse:

Children of James and Margaret:

Citations

  1. "of the Iron Belt", King of Scotland 1488-1513.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S3860] FamilySearch Community Trees, online http://histfam.familysearch.org/, James IV "of the Iron Belt" Stewart, King of Scotland.
  4. [S3860] FamilySearch Community Trees, online http://histfam.familysearch.org/, Margaret Tudor.

Henry of England1,2

#58338, b. January 1511, d. February 1511
FatherHenry VIII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jun 1491, d. 28 Jan 1547
MotherCatherine of Aragon2 b. 15 Dec 1485, d. 7 Jan 1535/36
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Henry of England was born in January 1511.2 Henry died in February 1511.2

Citations

  1. Prince of Wales.
  2. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 635.

Mary of England1,2

#58339, b. 18 February 1516, d. 17 November 1558
FatherHenry VIII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jun 1491, d. 28 Jan 1547
MotherCatherine of Aragon2 b. 15 Dec 1485, d. 7 Jan 1535/36
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
Queen Mary

Major Life Events

     Mary of England was born on 18 February 1516 at Greenwich Palace at Kent, England.3 She married Philip II (I) of Spain on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral.2,3 Mary died without issue on 17 November 1558 at St.Jame's Palace, London, at age 42.2,3 She was interred at Westminster Abbey.3

Narrative

     When Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was declared void by Thomas Crammer, Mary, who was then seventeen, was declared illegitimate. She was a well educated child and a capable linguist and musician, was devoted to her mother and hated the separation. She refused to accept the fact that the marriage between Henry and Catherine was not legitimate and regarded her father's second marriage as bigamous. She had a violent and volatile relationship with her stepmother and disliked her younger half-sister Elizabeth. Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour, worked hard to reconcile father and daughter, but the family was never fully reunited until Henry's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, succeeded in bringing them all together, united at least in their support for Edward. Henry's will recognized Mary's right to the throne in succession of Edward but Edward, fearing that she would undo the Protestant reforms instituted during his reign, amended the will nominating his cousin Jane as his successor. When Edward died, Jane was proclaimed queen but did not receive the support of her peers and was rapidily dethroned. Mary entered London in triumph on 3 August 1553 and was crowned two months later. Since Jane or Matilda (who had ruled briefly earlier while King Stephen was imprisoned and who's son, Henry II, succeeded Stephen establishing the Plantagenets as rulers) were never crowned, Mary became the first genuine queen of England. At the same time Scotland was also ruled by a Queen Mary, her first cousin.

     As feared, Mary did begin to reverse the legislation passed during Edward's reign and restored much of the old order as she believed was possible without provoking religious disorder. She reinstated some of the Catholic bishops and imprisoned certain zealous reformers, but did not dare overturn her father's enactment which would have restored the Pope's supremacy. She did pass an act invalidating her father's divorce from Catherine, restoring Mary's legitimacy and bastardising Elizabeth.

     Mary was not overly attractive and had inherited congenital syphilis from her father which not only gave her a weak constitution, with regular headaches and poor eyesight, but gave her a form of rhinitis which meant that her breath was always foul-smelling. If there was to be any marriage it would be a political one. Her choice settled on Philip of Spain, the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Parliment partitioned the Queen to reconsider and to seek a husband from within England. Mary refused. Her choice of Philip was unpopular as many worried that he would use the opportunity to enforce his own control over England and Mary would become a Spanish puppet. A group of conspirators including Sir James Crofts and Sir Thomas Wyatt plotted against Mary but only Wyatt's rebellion in Kent which began 25 January 1554 carried any force. It was soon crushed and many of the ringleaders were captured, tried, and executed. Princess Elizabeth was also implicated in the plot and was briefly confined to the Tower of London. Philip was granted the title of king becoming the English king consort. Eighteen months later Philip's father abdicated, relinquishing the throne of Spain to Philip. Mary likewise took the title of Queen of Spain. It's worth noting that Mary, Queen of Scots, married François, the French Dauphin, in 1558, he likewise became king consort of Scotland. Had Mary Tudor lived another eight months then England would have be ruled by a king and queen of Spain at the same time Scotland was ruled by a king and queen of France. Although Mary fell in love with Philip, the love was not reciprocated. Philip left England for Spain in August 1555 only to return once between March and June 1557. His treatment of Mary was callous and left her heartbroken.

     In November 1554 Cardinal Reginald Pole, the papal legate (and subsequently the archbishop of Canterbury) announced that England had be absolved of papal censures and was restored to the Holy See. While this was welcome by many in came with the papal requirement that all heretics be burned at the stake. This was when Mary's reign of terror began which gave her the name "Bloody Mary." Between February 1555 and November 1558 almost three hundred victims were burned at the stake. These included Thomas Crammer, archbishop of Canterbury, Hugh Latimer, bishop of Worcester, and Nicholas Ridley, bishoop of London.

     Another conspiracy was hatched against Mary in December 1555, called the Dudley Conspiracy after one of its main architects, Sir Henry Dudley. The idea was to rob the finances from the Exchequer, depose Mary and Philip, and raise Elizabeth to the throne. However news of the plot leaked out and by March 1556 most of the conspirators were either arrested or fled to France. There were other plots that failed, but England remained in a sorry state. The final blow to national pride came when Philip convince Mary and the English Parliament to join Spain in its war against France which resulted in the lost of Calais, England's last possession in France.

     Mary regarded her reign as a total failure. She died in the early hours of 17 November 1558, her constitution weaken by influenza. A few weeks earlier Mary had reluctantly conceded that her half-sister, Elizabeth would be her successor.4

Citations

  1. Queen of England 1553-1558.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 638.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 638-640.

Philip II (I) of Spain1,2,3

#58340, b. 21 May 1527, d. 13 September 1598
Phillip II

Major Life Events

     Philip II (I) of Spain was born on 21 May 1527.4 He married first Maria of Portugal in 1543.3 He married second Mary of England, daughter of Henry VIII Tudor of England and Catherine of Aragon, on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral.2,5 He married third Elizabeth de France circa 1559 at Toledo, Spain.4 He married fourth Anne of Austria.3 Philip died on 13 September 1598 at age 71.4

Narrative

     Philip was also known as Philip Hapsburg.

Citations

  1. King of Spain 1556-1598, King of Portugal as Philip I 1580-1598, King of Naples and Sicily 1554-1558, King of Chili 1554-1556.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S1955] Widipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  4. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  5. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 638.

Henry FitzRoy1,2

#58341, b. June 1519, d. 1553
FatherHenry VIII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jun 1491, d. 28 Jan 1547
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Henry FitzRoy was born in June 1519.3 Henry died without issue in 1553.2

Citations

  1. Duke of Richmond, illigitimate son of Henry VIII.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 632.

Elizabeth I of England1,2

#58342, b. 7 September 1533, d. 24 March 1603
FatherHenry VIII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jun 1491, d. 28 Jan 1547
MotherAnne Boleyn2 b. c 1507, d. 19 May 1536
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
Queen Elizabeth

Major Life Events

     Elizabeth I of England was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace.3 Elizabeth died without issue on 24 March 1603 at Richmont Palace at age 69.2,3 She was interred at Westminster Abbey.3

Narrative

     Elizabeth escaped the congenital syphilis passed by her father to his other children, and grew into a strong and healthy child who delighted in riding, hunting, archery, and dancing, and who became a proficient linguist. It was not until 1543 that Catherine Parr, Henry's last wife bought all of the children together and was an excellent stepmother. Mary and Elizabeth were never close but tolerated each other. Elizabeth always regarded herself as the rightful heiress. When Mary became queen Elizabeth was seen as a threat and a liability. Elizabeth had been raised in her father's new reformed Church of England while Mary remained staunchly Catholic. Mary believed that Elizabeth had plotted against her in a number of conspiracies and had her confined first to the Tower of London and later to Woodstock, near Oxford. When Mary died, Elizabeth inherited the throne. Her accession was welcomed throughout the land.

     Elizabeth had all the creditials for a strong queen. She inherited much from her father, her physical strength and resolution, her vicious temper, her cruelty, but also a delight in pomp, a passion for power and a general joy of life. From her mother, apart from her youthful beauty, she inherited a degree of insincerity and a tendency toward jealousy. Elizabeth reign for nearly forty-five years, longer than any king since Edward III. Her reign was the most glorious England had seen and one which established England as a world power.

     Elizabeth's first pressing responsibility was to resolve the religious division in England. She did not want a backlash against the Protestant persecutions of Mary's reign nor did she want the rampant Protestantism of Edward's. She sought to strike a balance, accommodating both religions and although Protestantism was to become the national religion, she did not regard it wrong if there were those who wished to hear the Roman mass in private. Those that acted wisely would be safe in her realm, but she would not tolerate any who sought to test her will. Nevertheless, there were many Catholic conspiracies seeking to overthrow her during her reign. This became worse after 1570 when the Pope issued a bull deposing her. She took no notice of this and it only strengthened her role as "Supreme Governor of the Church of England" and meant that anyone wh continued to practive Catholicism was effectively a traitor. Religious persecution returned after 1570 and this only aggravated the Catholic cause against her. This widen the rift between England and Scotland and led to the darkest shadow cast over her reign, the treatment of Mary Queen of Scots, her cousin and claimant on the English throne.

     Mary Queen of Scots was still in her teens when Elizabeth took the throne. She was the queen consort to the king of France. Her mother, Mary of Guise an ardent Catholic, was the queen regent in Scotland and it was her desire to place her daughter on the English throne. A growing number of Protestants was making Scotland a divided state and many were fearful that Scotland would become a puppet of France. Elizabeth secretly support the Scottish Protestants against the tho Maries. The Protestant rebels became too powerful to overlook and Mary of Guise sought aid from France. A French invasion became a probability and advance troops landed in Scotland. Elizabeth took advantage of the situation to enter into an alliance with Scotland in February 1560 whereby Engand promised troops to help repel the French. The French decided to negotiate when Mary of Guise died. This resulted in the Treaty of Edinburgh signed on 6 July 1560. Five months later, François II of France died and in August 1561 the widowed Mary returned to Scotland. In August 1560 the Scottish Parliament had abolished the Pope's authority and brought its Protestant church more in line with England's but Mary remained a Catholic. However, Mary was conciliatory and her charm captivated her Scottish subjects who soon welcomed her return. She, however, refused to ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh which would have denied her any succession to the English throne and she actively sought to be considered as Elizabeth's heir presumptive in the absence of any children. Elizabeth refused to name a successor and always maintaining that although she had no desire to marry, for the sake of the succession one day she would and produce an heir. Meanwhile Mary was in pursuit of a new husband and there was fear in England that if she married the heir of a strong Catholic country, she would have the power to to invade England and oust Elizabeth. This threat was even more potent when negotiations opened between Scotland and Spain for the marriage between Mary and the heir, Don Calos. However, this ceased when Don Carlos was declared insane. Mary fell in love with her cousin Lord Darnley. Their marriage proved unpopular and the subsequent events, including the murder of Mary's secretary, David Rizzio, the mysterious death of Darnley in February 1567 and Mary's affair with and rapid marriage to Lord Bothwel, brought her fall from grace and her subsequent disposition. From July 1567 she was a captive and in May 1568 was driven out of Scotland throwing herself on the mercy of Elizabeth. Elizabeth was outwardly supportive but maintained that she could not harbour Mary with the stigma of her involvement in the death of Darnley. Mary remained in prison, first at Carlisle, and then in a series of Castle thoughout northern England for nineteen years. Catholic factions used Mary as figure head for their cause and there were several conspiracies during this period culminating in the Babington Plot in the summer of 1586. Plans were well advance and there was hoope of a Spanish invasion, when Babington was betrayed. Mary was aware of the plot and was tried for treason, found guilty, and executed with much reluctance on Elizabeth's part. At this same time Elizabeth bestowed a pension upon Mary's son, James VI, in effect recognizing him as her heir.

     Elizabeth's dedication to the throne and her people led her to say that she was married to the nation in much the same way she believed her bishops were married to the church. He belief in absolute authority probably meant that she would have found it difficult to share government with anyone. It was not help by the fact that her first love was almost certainly her favorite, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, the brother of Gulford Dudley, husband of Lary Jane Grey. Robert was already married to Amy Roberts whose mysterious death in 1560 caused many to believe that Dudley had murdered her. This thus tainted Dudley making him no suitable candidate for Elizabeth. Elizabeth was sadden by his death in 1588.

     There were several candidates for Elizbeth to marry. Among them Philip II, former husband of her sister Mary, but Elizabeth confirmed her opposition to papal sovereignty in 1559 and negotiations were dropped. Then there was Charles, the archduke of Austria, and younger son of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand. However, Elizabeth's advisor, William Cecil, counselled against it, Elizabeth became more involved with Dudley and negotiations collasped in 1567 on religious grounds. By the time Elizabeth came to reconsider Charles in 1570 he was betrothed to another. Now approaching 37 Elizabeth's eligibilty was failing. Negotiations opened with Henri, duke of Anjou, the younger brother of Charles IX, king of France (who had been a suiter at one stage). Again negotiations failed on religious grounds (or possibly because of Henri's sexual practices -- he was bisexual and a transvestite). Henri's younger brother François, duke of Alençon became a candidate. Though negotiations were erratic Elizabeth caused a sensation when she announce she would marry him in November 1581. This was a ploy on Elizabeth's part to increase bargaining power with the French. All came to naught when François died in 1584. By now Elizabeth was passed the age of successfully bearing a healthy child. It is almost certain that despite her many favorites, Elizabeth remained a virgin all her life. She delighted in her viginity, deploying it as a strength, and became known as "the Virgin Queen". Walter Raleigh named Virginia in the North America after her. Elizabeth refused to acknowledge that she was aging. She had lost most of her own hair and wore a wig, whitened her face to hide the scarring from smallpox, and even rubbed urine into her face to remove wrinkles. However, she could not hide her blackened teeth arising from her love of sugar.

     During all these years England had been fighting an official war with Spain. Philip II was infuriated by England's blatant piracy of Spanish ships from the New World. In 1590 Philip became the king of Portugal as well as Spain, thus increasing his maritime and merchant strength. In July 1587 Philip secured a treaty with the pope approving the conquest of England provided that the land was restored to Catholism. This led to the most famous confrontations of all time when Philip sent his apparently invincible Armada agains England in July 1588. Philip's venture was doomed by the weather even more than by the superiority of the English seamanship and the better design of the English ships. The defeat of the Armada was one of the most important victories in English history. The conflict with Spain dragged on for another fifteen years. Philip dispatched a second Armada in 1596, but this again fell foul of the weather as did the English fleet. This was the last major battle agains Spain although hostilities continued beyond Philip's death in September 1598 and even beyond's Elizabeth's.

     The final years of her reign lack the vitality of her youth. Although she made no will, she made it known that her cousin James VI, was her lawful successor. She thus was the last queen of England. The combination of her reign and that of her father had made England one of the greatest powers in Europe. Her reign was England's golden age.4

Citations

  1. Queen of England 1558-1603.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 640.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 640-647.

Jane Seymour1

#58343, b. 10 October 1507, d. 14 October 1537
Jane Seymour

Major Life Events

     Jane Seymour was born on 10 October 1507 at Wolf Hall at Savernake, Wiltshire, England.2 She married Henry VIII Tudor of England, son of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 30 May 1536 at Whitehall Palace, London, England.1 Jane died in childbirth on 14 October 1537 at Hampton Court, London, England, at age 30.1,3,2 She was interred on 12 November 1637 at Windsor Castle at Windsor, Berkshire, England.2

Child of Jane and Henry:

Narrative

     Prior to the beheading of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, Henry had become infactuated with Jane Seymour, one of Anne's ladies in waiting. Jane was not particularly attractive but beguiled Henry with her coquettish ways. They were married eleven days after the execution of Anne. The marriage was a happy one, abeit brief. Jane was never crowned queen because of an outbreak of plague in London delayed the coronation and then Jane became pregnant. Henry was overjoyed when Jane gave birth to a boy, the future Edward VI. Jane was seriously weaken by the birth and died twelve days later in the midst of Henry's celebrations. Because she had given him a son and heir, Jane remained the favourite of Henry's wifes and after his death he was laid beside her in St. George's Chapel, Windsor.4

Citations

  1. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  2. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Lacey (Jane Seymour, ID: 617958439).
  3. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 634.

Edward VI of England1,2

#58344, b. 12 October 1537, d. 6 July 1553
FatherHenry VIII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jun 1491, d. 28 Jan 1547
MotherJane Seymour2 b. 10 Oct 1507, d. 14 Oct 1537
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
Edward VI

Major Life Events

     Edward VI of England was born on 12 October 1537 at Hampton Court Palace.3 Edward died without issue on 6 July 1553 at Greenwich Palace at age 15.2,3 He was interred at Westminster Abbey.3

Narrative

     Edward was the only surviving son of Henry VIII and only nine when his father died. His mother, Jane Seymour, had died giving birth. He seemed healthy in his youth but it became evident that he had a weak constitution. He had the potential to be a wise and powerful king for he received an extensive education and was raised with considerable care by his stepmother, Cathering Parr.

     Edward's uncle, Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset, was made "Protector of the Realm" during Edward's minority and started the reign with an invasion of Scotland to enforce the marriage treaty between Edward and Mary, Queen of Scots. He defeated the Scots at Pinkie but was unable to break the Scot's resolve and in fact drove them closer to a marriage alliance with France. Edward was surrounded by rival factions who sought to control the king's mind when he was too young to fully understand the motives for his actions. He seemed to have regretted having to agree to the execution of Thomas Seymour, who had become his step-father (Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr after the death of Henry VIII), on grounds of high-treason in March of 1549, and in 1552 he also agreed to the execution of the protector, Somerset, who had presumed his authority and had been ousted from power in October 1549. In his wake the over ambitious John Dudley, earl of Warwick (and soon to be created duke of Northumberland) came to power, acting as protector in all but name.

     Edward had been raised Protestant and at the beginning of his reign Protestant reform continued at an even greater pace than before due to the unremitting zeal of the Protector Somerset. All shrine and pictures of saints were destroyed, many processions were banned and the number of official ceremonies reduced. The first English Prayer Book was issued in 1548. There was much Catholic discontent throughout England although the only manifestation of it was a rebellion in Devon in the summer of 1549 which was quickly put down by Lord Russell. At the same time there was a repeat of the problems which had given rise to the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, when local peasants under the leadership of Robert Kett, a tanner, rebelled against the enclosure of common land. Kett and his force of ten thousand men tried to blockade Norwich but were defeated by John Dudley and Kett was hanged.

     Edward founded a number of grammer schools throughout England which still bear his name and he established a workhouse for the poor at Bridewell and Christ's Hospital in London. He seemed to have genuine concern for the poor and needy and promoted education and learning. Although moulded into a zealous Protestant he promoted it with good intentions. Northumberland's concern that if he died young all the Protestant reform would be undone if his half-sister Mary, a staunch Catholic, came to the throne. He complied with Northumberland's plans in promoting Lady Jane Grey as his successor.

     Edward's last year was one of much suffering. He contracted consumption and also suffered from congential syphilis, passed on to him from his father. His death was a merciful blessing for him, but would turn the country into a period of turmoil.4

Citations

  1. King of England 1547-1553.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 636.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, pages 636-637.

Anne of Cleves1

#58345, b. 22 September 1515, d. 16 July 1557
Anne of Cleves

Major Life Events

     Anne of Cleves was born on 22 September 1515 at Dusseldorf, Cleves, Germany.2,3 She married Henry VIII Tudor of England, son of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 6 January 1540 at Greenwich Palace.1 Anne died on 16 July 1557 at Chelsea Old Place, London, England, at age 41.2,3 She was interred at Westminster Abbey at London, England.2

Narrative

     Anne, the fourth wife of Henry VIII, was the sister of William, Duke of Cleves, one of the most powerful of the German Protestant princes. She was considered a desirable match for Henry by those councilors, most notably Thomas Cromwell, who wished to ally England with the Schmalkaldic League. The marriage was agreed upon in 1539, and although Henry tried to break the contract after seeing his bride, they were married in January 1540. Henry found Anne dull and unattractive, and the marriage was never consummated. This and the fact that Anne had previously contracted to mary the duke of Lorraine's son were used as grounds for divorce in July 1540. Anne gave her consent and, by agreement, lived the rest of her life in England.2 The marriage of Anne of Cleves and Henry VIII Tudor of England was annulled on 9 July 1540.1

Citations

  1. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 630.
  2. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Our Family (Anne of Cleves, ID: I60141).
  3. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Fred L. and Kay K. Curry's ancestors and relatives (Anne of Cleves, ID: I18692).

Thomas Seymour1,2

#58353, b. circa 1515, d. 20 March 1548/49

Major Life Events

     Thomas Seymour was born circa 1515.3 He married Catherine Parr, daughter of Thomas Parr and Maud Green, on 4 April 1547.3 He was beheaded on 20 March 1548/49 at Tower Hill, Tower of London, London, England.2,3

Citations

  1. Lord Seymour of Sudeley.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S815] Ancestry World Tree Project, online http://www.ancestry.com, Lacey (Thomas Seymour, ID: 617957287).

Mary Tudor of England1,2

#58354, b. 18 March 1495/96, d. 26 June 1533
FatherHenry VII Tudor of England2 b. 28 Jan 1457, d. 21 Apr 1509
MotherElizabeth Plantagenet2 b. 11 Feb 1465/66, d. 11 Feb 1502/3
Relationship2nd cousin 14 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
According to conflicting evidence, she first married Louis XII of France on 9 October 1514 at Abbeville Cathedral, France.3

Major Life Events

     Mary Tudor of England was born on 18 March 1495/96.3 She married first Louis XII of France, son of Charles of Orleans and Mary of Cleves, in August 1514.2,4 She married second Charles Brandon in February 1515.2,4 Mary died on 26 June 1533 at age 37.3

Citations

  1. Princess of England.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 631.

Louis XII of France1

#58355, b. 27 July 1462, d. 1 January 1514/15
FatherCharles of Orleans b. 24 Nov 1394, d. 5 Jan 1465
MotherMary of Cleves
Relationship4th cousin 17 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence
According to conflicting evidence, he married third Mary Tudor of England on 9 October 1514 at Abbeville Cathedral, France.2

Major Life Events

     Louis XII of France married first Jeanne of France, daughter of Louis XI of France and Charlotte of Savoy.3 He was born on 27 July 1462 at Blois, France.2 He married second Anne de Dreux, daughter of Francis II de Dreux and Margaret de Foix, on 8 January 1498/99.2 He married third Mary Tudor of England, daughter of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, in August 1514.1,4 Louis died on 1 January 1514/15 at Paris, France, at age 52.2

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  2. [S422] Enfield-Bryant Genealogy, Genealogy Database.
  3. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table XXIII.--France. The House of Valois.
  4. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 631.

Charles Brandon1,2

#58356

Major Life Events

     Charles Brandon married Mary Tudor of England, daughter of Henry VII Tudor of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, in February 1515.2,3

Children of Charles and Mary:

Citations

  1. Duke of Suffolk.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.
  3. [S481] Mike Ashley, British Kings & Queens, page 631.

Eleanor Brandon1

#58362
FatherCharles Brandon1
MotherMary Tudor of England1 b. 18 Mar 1495/96, d. 26 Jun 1533
Relationship3rd cousin 13 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Eleanor Brandon married Henry Clifford.1

Child of Eleanor and Henry:

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.

Henry Clifford1,2

#58363

Major Life Events

     Henry Clifford married Eleanor Brandon, daughter of Charles Brandon and Mary Tudor of England.2

Child of Henry and Eleanor:

Citations

  1. Earl of Cumberland.
  2. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.

Margaret Clifford1

#58364
FatherHenry Clifford
MotherEleanor Brandon
Relationship4th cousin 12 times removed of Paul Edward Lawrence

Major Life Events

     Margaret Clifford married Henry Stanley, son of Edward Stanley and Dorothy of Norfolk.1

Citations

  1. [S1953] Hereford B. George M.A. F.R.G.S. Fellow of New College Oxford, Genealogical Tables of Modern History, Table VIII, England, The Tudors and Stuarts.